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2019高考英语阅读理解---主旨大意

pavestone 英语考试 2019-04-10 99 0

高考英语阅读理解考纲关于阅读理解部分考纲要求:

    阅读部分 要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告等,并能从中获取相关信息。考生应能:(1)理解主旨要义;(2)理解文中具体信息;(3)根据上下文推断单词和短语的含义;(4)做出判断和推理;(5)理解文章的基本结构;(6)理解作者的意图、观点和态度。

需要特别说明的是,考试说明中强调:“阅读部分要求学生读懂选自英语原版书籍、报纸和杂志(含网络版)的关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告等,并能从中获取相关信息。文体包括记叙文、议论文、说明文和应用文等。” 网络版英语文章也有可能成为阅读理解命题的材料。

1. 

Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.

...

Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival.

What is the min idea of the text?

A.New languages will be created.

B.Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages

C.Human development results in fewer languages

D.Geography determines language evolution.

2. Going green seems to be fad(时尚)for a lot of people these days. Whether that is good or bad, we can’t really say, but for the tow of us, going green is not a fad but a lifestyle.

On April22, 2011, we decided to go green every single day for an entire year. This meant doing 365 different green things, and it also meant challenging ourselves to go green beyond easy things. Rather than recycle and reduce our energy, we had to think of 365 different green things to do and this was no easy task.

   What might be the best title for the passage?

A.Going Green.B.Protecting the Planet.

C.Keeping Open-MindedD.Celebrating Our Green Year.

 3. Of course, markets and queues are not the only ways of allocating things. Some goods we distribute by merit, others by need, still others by chance. However, the tendency of markets to replace queues, and other non-market ways of allocating goods is so common in modern life that we scarcely notice it anymore. It is striking that most of the paid queue-jumping schemes we’ve considered—at airports and amusement parks, in call centers, doctors’ offices, and national parks—are recent developments, scarcely imaginable three decades ago. The disappearance of the queues in these places may seem an unusual concern, but these are not the only places that markets have entered.

The passage is meant to ______.

A.justify paying for faster services

B.discuss the morals of allocating things

C.analyze the reason for standing in line

D.criticize the behavior of queue jumping

 4.

Some of the world’s most famous musicians recently gathered in Paris and New Orleans to celebrate the first annual International Jazz Day. UNESCO(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) recently set April 30 as a day to raise awareness of jazz music, its significance, and its potential as a unifying(联合) voice across cultures.

Despite the celebrations, though, in the U.S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.

Which of the following can be the best title for the text

A.Exploring the Future of jazz.

B.The Rise and Fall of jazz.

C.The Story of a jazz Musician.

D.Celebrating the Jazz Day.

5. Many people think that listening is a passive business. It is just the opposite. Listening well is an active exercise of our attention and hard work. It is because they do not realize this, or because they are not willing to do the work, that most people do not listen well.

    Listening well also requires total concentration upon someone else. An essential part of listening well is the rule known as ‘bracketing’. Bracketing includes the temporary giving up or setting aside of your own prejudices and desires, to experience as far as possible someone else’s world from the inside, stepping into his or her shoes. Moreover, since listening well involves bracketing, it also involves a temporary acceptance of the other person. Sensing this acceptance, the speaker will seem quite willing to open up the inner part of his or her mind to the listener. True communication is under way and the energy required for listening well is so great that it can be accomplished only by the will to extend oneself for mutual growth.

...

 What is mainly discussed in Paragraph 2?

A.How to listen well. B.What to listen to.

C.Benefits of listening. D.Problems in listening

 6. Using too much water or throwing rubbish into our rivers are clear ways that humans can put our water supply in danger , but we also affect our water supply in less obvious ways. You may wonder how paving(铺砌) a road can lead to less useable fresh water. A major part of the water we use every day is groundwater. Groundwater does not come from lakes or rivers. It comes from underground. The more roads and parking lots we pave the less water can flow into the ground to become groundwater.

...

Thinking about the way we use water every day can make a big difference, too In the United States , a family of four can use 1. 5 tons of water a day! This shows how much we depend on water to live, but there’s a lot we can do to lower the number.

The text is mainly about __________ .

A.Why paving roads reduces our water   B.how much we depend on water to live

C.why droughts occur more in dry climates  D.how human activity affects our water supply

7. ...

According to the designer, the Lampbrella would move at a relatively low speed, so as not to cause harm to the pedestrians. Besides, it would be grounded to protect from possible lighting strike. Each Lampbrella would offer enough shelter for several people. Being installed

(安装)at 2 meters off the ground, it would only be a danger for the tallest of pedestrians.

...

 What does paragraph 5 mainly tell us about the Lampbrella?

A. Its moving speed        B. Its appearance  

C. Its installation            D. Its safety

8

With around 100 students scheduled to be in that 9 am Monday morning lecture, it is no surprise that almost 20 people actually make it to the class and only 10 of them arc still awake after the first IS minutes; it is not even a surprise that most of them are still in their pyjamas (睡衣). Obviously, students are terrible at adjusting their sleep cycles to their daily schedule.

All human beings possess a body clock. Along with other alerting (警报) systems, this governs the sleep/wake cycle and is therefore one of the main processes which govern sleep behaviour. Typically, the preferred sleep/wake cycle is delayed in adolescents, which leads to many students not feeling sleepy until much later in the evenings. This typical sleep pattern is usually referred to as the "night owl" schedule of sleep.

This is opposed to the "early bird" schedule, and is a kind of disorder where the individual tends to stay up much past midnight. Such a person has great difficulty in waking up in the mornings. Research suggests that night owls feel most alert and function best in the evenings and at night.

 Research findings have shown that about 20 percent of people can be classified as "night owls" and only 10 percent can be classified as "early birds" - the other 70 percent are in the middle. Although this is clearly not true for all students, for the ones who are true night owls this gives them an excellent excuse for missing their lectures which unfortunately fall before midday.

What docs the text mainly talk about

A.Functions of the body clock.      B.The "night owl" phenomenon.

C.Human beings' sleep behaviour.     D.The school schedule of "early birds".

9

Group exercise is one of the most effective ways to improve physical fitness and sustain(保持) a healthy lifestyle.Group exercise is challenging, yet fun and empowering! Of course everyone knows that exercise is good for the body.However, studies have shown that when exercise is performed in groups, it's not only great for improving physical health but for psychological health. It's an opportunity to be social, release endorphins(内啡肽 ) , and improve your strength. Additionally, group exercise creates a community feel and the shared common goal motivates participants to work hard. The instrumental support of taking on a fitness journey with others proves more effective than going to the gym alone.

...

The first paragraph focuses on____ .

A.  the greatest challenge of group exercise

B.  the most effective way to improve physical fitness

C.  the contribution of group exercise to psychological health

D.  the shared common goal in performing exercise in groups

 10.

Across Britain,burnt toast will be served to mothers in bed this morning as older sons and daughters rush to deliver their supermarket bunches of flowers.But,according to a new study,we should be placing a higher value on motherhood all year.

...

The study shows mothers matter all year long and not just on Mother’s Day.The emotional,physical and mental energy mothers devote to their children can be never-ending,but children are also sources of great joy and happiness.Investing(投入)in time for parenting and raising relationships is money well spent.

What is stressed in the last paragraph?

A.Mothers’importance shows in family all year long.

B.The sacrifices mothers make are huge but worthwhile.

C.Mothers’devotion to children can hardly be calculated.

D.Investing time in parenting would bring a financial return.

11.

Food serves as a form of communication in two fundamental ways. Sharing bread or other foods is a common human tradition that can promote unity and trust. Food can also have a specific meaning, and play a significant role in a family or culture's celebrations or traditions. The foods we eat—and when and how we eat them—are often unique to a particular culture or may even differ between rural(农村的) and urban areas within one country.

Sharing bread, whether during a special occasion(时刻) or at the family dinner table, is a common symbol of togetherness. Many cultures also celebrate birthdays and marriages with cakes that are cut and shared among the guests. Early forms of cake were simply a kind of bread, so this tradition has its roots in the custom of sharing bread.

Food also plays an important role in many New Year celebrations. In the southern United States, pieces of corn bread represent blocks of gold for prosperity(兴旺) in the New Year. In Greece, people share a special cake called vasilopita. A coin is put into the cake, which signifies(预示) success in the New Year for the person who receives it.

Many cultures have ceremonies to celebrate the birth of a child, and food can play a significant role. In China, when a baby is one month old, families name and welcome their child in a celebration that includes giving red-colored eggs to guests. In many cultures, round foods such as grapes, bread, and moon cakes are eaten at welcome celebrations to represent family unity.

Nutrition is necessary for life, so it is not surprising that food is such an important part of different cultures around the world.

What is the passage mainly about?

A. The custom of sharing food.

B. The importance of food in culture.

C. The role of food in ceremonies.

D. The specific meaning of food.

12

If you could have one superpower,what would it be?

    Dreaming about whether you would want to read minds,see through walls,or have superhuman strength may sound silly,but it actually gets to the heart of what really matters in your life.

    Every day in our work,we are inspired by the people we meet doing extraordinary things to improve the world.

    They have a different kind of superpower that all of us possess:the power to make a difference in the lives of others.

    We're not saying that everyone needs to contribute their lives to the poor.Your lives are busy enough doing homework,playing sports,making friends,seeking after your dreams.But we do think that you can live a more powerful life when you devote some of your time and energy to something much larger than yourself.Find an issue you are interested in and learn more.Volunteer or,if you can,contribute a little money to a cause.Whatever you do,don't be a bystander (旁观者).Get involved.You may have the opportunity to make your biggest difference when you're older.But why not start now?

...

   What does the author stress in Paragraph 5

A.Learning more and contributing more to a cause.

B.Rising above self and acting to help others.

C.Working hard to get a bigger opportunity.

D.Trying your best to help the poor.

 13.

Grown-ups are often surprised by how well they remember something

they learned as children but have never practiced still swim as well as ever

since. A man when he gets back who has not had a chance to go swimming for years can in the water. He can get on a bicycle after many years and

 still ride away. He can play catch and hit a ball as well as his son. A mother who has not thought about the words for years can teach her daughter the poem that begins "Twinkle, twinkle, little star"。remember the story of Cinder-ella or Goldilocks and the Three Bears.

...

 What is the main idea of paragraph 1?

A.People remember well what they learned in childhood.

B.Children have a better memory than grown-ups.

C.Poem reading is a good way to learn words.

D.Stories for children arc easy to remember.

14

Wilderness

...

Lee Lane, a visiting fellow at the Hudson Institute, takes the opposing view. He acknowledges that wildernesses do provide useful services, such as water conservation. But that is not, he argues, a reason to avoid all human presence, or indeed commercial and industrial exploitation. There are ever more people on the Earth, and they reasonably and rightfully want to have better lives, rather than merely struggle for survival. While the ways of using resources have improved, there is still a growing need for raw materials, and some wildernesses contain them in abundance. If they can be tapped without reducing the services those wildernesses provide, the argument goes, there is no further reason not to do so. Being untouched is not, in itself, a characteristic worth valuing above all others.

....

What is the main idea of Para. 3?

A. The exploitation is necessary for the poor people.

B. Wildernesses cannot guarantee better use of raw materials.

C. Useful services of wildernesses are not the reason for no exploitation.

D. All the characteristics concerning the exploitation should be treated equally.

15

Harvard researchers have created a tough, low-cost, biodegradable (可生物降解的) material inspired by insects' hard outer shells. The material's inventors say it has a number of possible uses and someday could provide a more environmentally friendly alternative to plastic. The material, made from shrimp (虾) shells and proteins produced from silk, is called "shrilk." It is thin, clear, flexible and strong.

...

Paragraph 1 of the passage is mainly about shrilk's _________.

A. remarkable design         B. interesting name

C. major features              D. basic elements

16

Ireland has had a very difficult history. The problems started in the 16th century when English rulers fried to conquer (征服) Ireland. For hundreds of years, the Irish people fought against the English. Finally,

in 1921, the British government was forced to give independence to the south of Ireland. The result is that today there are two "Irelands". Northern Ireland, in the north, is part of the United Kingdom. The republic of Ireland, in the south, is an independent country.

...

 What does the author tell us in paragraph 1?

A. how the Irish fought against the English.

B. how Ireland gained independence.

C. how English rulers tried to conquer Ireland.

D. how two “Irelands” came into being.

17

One of the greatest contributors to the first Oxford English Dictionary was also one of its most unusual. In 1879, Oxford University in England asked Prof. James Murray to serve as editor for what was to be the most ambitious dictionary in the history of the English language. It would include every English word possible and would give not only the definition but also the history of the word and quotations(引文) showing how it was used.

   This was a huge task, so Murray had to find volunteers from Britain, the United States, and the British colonies to search every newspaper, magazine, and book ever written in English. Hundreds of volunteers responded, including William Chester Minor. Dr. Minor was an American surgeon who had served in the Civil War and was now living in England. He gave his address as “Broadmoor, Crowthorne, Berkshire,” 50 miles from Oxford.

  Minor joined the army of volunteers sending words and quotations to Murray. Over the next 17 years, he became one of the staff’s most valued contributors.

...

Minor died in 1920, seven years before the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary was completed. The 12 volunteers defined 414,825 words, and thousands of them were contributions from a very scholarly and devoted asylum patient.

 What does the text mainly talk about?

A.The history of the English language.

B.The friendship between Murray and Minor.

C.Minor and the first Oxford English Dictionary.

D.Broadmoor Asylum and its patients.

18

While Jennifer was at home taking an online exam for her business law class,a monitor(监控器)a few hundred miles away was watching her every move.

    Using a web camera equipped in Jennifer’s Los Angeles apartment,the monitor in Phoenix tracked how frequently her eyes moved from the computer screen and listened for the secret sounds of a possible helper in the room.Her Internet access was locked-remotely-to prevent Internet searches,and her typing style was analyzed to make sure she was who she said she was:Did she enter her student number at the same speed as she had in the past? Or was she slowing down?

...

Aside from the web cameras,a number of other high¬tech methods are becoming increasingly popular.Among them are programs that check students’ identities using personal information,such as the telephone numbers they once used.

    Other programs can produce unique exams by drawing on a large list of questions and can recognize possible cheaters by analyzing whether difficult test questions are answered at the same speed as easy ones.As in many university classes,term papers are scanned against some large Internet data banks for cheating.

Which of the following is the best title of this passage?

A.The Advantages of Online Exams

B.The High¬tech Methods in Online Courses

C.The Fight against Cheating in Online Education

D.The War against the Booming of Online Education

19.

Doctor are known to Be terriBle pilots. They don't listen Because they already know it all. I was lucky: Became a pilot in 1970, almost ten years Before I graduated from medical school. I didn't realize then, But Becoming a pilot makes me a Better surgeon. I loved flying. As I flew Bigger, faster planes, and in worse weather. I learned aBout crew resource management (机组资源管理), or CRM, a new idea to make flying safer. It means that crew memBers should listen and speak up for a good result, regardless of positions.

...

CRM requires that the pilot/surgeon encourage others to speak up. It further requires that when opinions are from the opposite, the doctor doesn't overreact, which might prevent fellow doctors from voicing opinions again. So when I'm in the operating room, I ask for ideas and help from others. Sometimes they're not willing to speak up. But I hope that if I continue to encourage them , someday someone will keep me  from ”landing gear up”.

Which of the following can Be the Best title for the text?

A.CRM:A New Way to Make Flying Safe

B.Flying Makes Me a Better Doctor

C.The Making of a Good Pilot

D.A Pilot-Tumed Doctor

20

We’ve reached a strange—some would say unusual—point. While fighting world hunger continues to be the matter of vital importance according to a recent report from the World Health Organization (WHO), more people now die from being overweight, or say, from being extremely fat, than from being underweight. It’s the good life that’s more likely to kill us these days.

    Worse, nearly l8 million children under the age of five around the world are estimated to be overweight. What’s going on?

    We really don’t have many excuses for our weight problems. The dangers of the problem have been drilled into us by public-health campaigns since 2001 and the message is getting through—up to a point.

...

We know what we should be doing to lose weight—but actually doing it is another matter. By far the most popular excuse is not taking enough exercise. More than half of us admit we lack willpower.

    Others blame good food. They say: it’s just too inviting and it makes them overeat. Still others lay the blame on the Americans, complaining that pounds have piled on thanks to eating too much American-style fast food.

    Some also blame their parents—their genes. But unfortunately, the parents are wronged because they’re normal in shape, or rather slim.

    It’s a similar story around the world, although people are relatively unlikely to have tried to lose weight. Parents are eager to see their kids shape up. Do as I say—not as I do.

Which would be the best title for the passage?

A.Actions or Excuses? B.Overweight or Underweight?

C.WHO in a Dilemma D.No Longer Dying of Hunger

21

Arriving in Sydney on his own from India, my husband ,Rashid, stayed in a hotel for a short time while looking for a house for me and our children.During the first week of his stay, he went out one day to do some shopping. He came back in the late afternoon to discover that his suitcase was gone. He was extremely worried as the suitcase had all his important papers, including his passport.

    He reported the case to the police and then sat there,lost and lonely in strange city, thinking of the terrible troubles of getting all the paperwork organized again from a distant country while trying to settle down in a new one.

    Late in the evening, the phone rang. It was a stranger. He was trying to pronounce my husband’s name and was asking him a lot of questions. Then he said they had found a pile of papers in their trash can(垃圾桶)that had been left out on the footpath.

    My husband rushed to their home to find a kind family holding all his papers and documents. Their young daughter had gone to the trash can and found a pile of unfamiliar papers. Her parents had carefully sorted them out, although they had found mainly foreign addresses on most of the documents. At last they had seen a half-written letter in the pile in which my husband had given his new telephone number to a friend.

    That family not only restored the important documents to us that day but also restoredour faith and trust in people.We still remember their kindness and often send a warm wish their way.

Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A.From India to Australia.

B.Living in a a New Country.

C.Turning Trash to Treasure.

D.In Search of New Friends.

22

Your house may have an effect on your figure.Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off.You can make your environment work for you instead of against you.Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan.Open the curtains and turn up the lights.Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating,for people are often less self-conscious(难为情) when they’re in poorly lit places — and so more likely to eat lots of food.If your home doesn’t have enough window light,get more lamps and flood the place with brightness.

Mind the colors.Research suggests warm colors fuel our appetites.In one study,people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room.Warm colors like yellow make food appear more appetizing,while cold colors make us feel less hungry.So when it’s time to repaint,go blue.

Don’t forget the clock — or the radio.People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里)per meal than those who rush through their meals.Begin keeping track of the time,and try to make dinner last at least 30 minutes.And while you’re at it,actually sit down to eat.If you need some help slowing down,turn on relaxing music.It makes you less likely to rush through a meal.

Downsize the dishes.Big serving bowls and plates can easily make us fat.We eat about 22 percent more when using a 12-inch plate instead of a 10-inch plate.When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one,total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent.And we’ll pour about 30 percent more liquid into a short,wide glass than a tall,skinny glass.

What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Is Your House Making You Fat?

B.Ways of Serving Dinner

C.Effects of Self-Consciousness

D.Is Your Home Environment Relaxing?

23

  The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap(间隙)with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person"s needs.

Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops, what maybe implied(暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.

Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic udner discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.

Nurses and other care-geivers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be expericencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing(治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.

What may be the best title for the text?

A.Sound and Silence

B.What It Means to Be Silent

C.Silence to Native Americans

D.Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold

24

    Reading can be a social activity. Think of the people who belong to book groups. They choose books to read and then meet to discuss them. Now, the website BookCrossing.com turns the page on the traditional idea of a book group.

Members go on the site and register the books they own and would like to share. BookCrossing provides an identification number to stick inside the book. Then the person leaves it in a public place, hoping that the book will have an adventure, traveling far and wide with each new reader who finds it.

Bruce Pederson, the managing director of BookCrossing, says, “The two things that change your life are the people you meet and books you read. BookCrossing combines both.”

Members leave books on park benches and buses, in train stations and coffee shops. Whoever finds their book will go to the site and record where they found it.

People who find a book can also leave a journal entry describing what they thought of it. E-mails are then sent to the BookCrossers to keep them updated about where their books have been found. Bruce Pederson says the idea is for people not to be selfish by keeping a book to gather dust on a shelf at home.BookCrossing is part of a trend among people who want to get back to the “real” and not the virtual(虚拟). The site now has more than one million members in more than one hundred thirty-five countries.

 What is the best title for the text?

A. Online Reading: A Virtual Tour

B. Electronic Books: A new Trend

C. A Book Group Brings Tradition Back

D. A Website Links People through Books

25

   Honey from the African forest is not only a kind of natural sugar, it is also delicious. Most people, and many animals, like eating it. However, the only way for them to get thathoney is to find a wild bees' nest and take the honey from it. Often, these nests are high up in trees, and it is difficult to find them. In parts of Africa, though, people and animals looking for

honey have a strange and unexpected helper - a little bird called a honey guide.

      The honey guide does not actually like honey, but it does like the wax in the beehives (蜂房). The little bird cannot reach this wax, which is deep inside the bees' nest. So, when it finds a suitable nest, it looks for someone to help it. The honey guide gives a loud cry that attracts the attention of

both passing animals and people. Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest. When they finally arrive at the nest, the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently waits and watches. Some of the honey, and the wax, always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share.

     Scientists do not know why the honey guide likes eating the wax, but it is very determined in its efforts to get it. The birds seem to be able to smell wax from a long distance away. They will quickly arrive whenever a beekeeper is taking honey from his beehives, and will even enter churches when beeswax candles are being lit.

What can be the best title for the text?

A. Wild Bees

B. Wax and Honey

C. Beekeeping in Africa

D. Honey-Lover's Helper

26

     Some people believe that a Robin Hood is at work, others that a wealthy person simply wants to distribute his or her fortune before dying. But the donator who started sending envelopes with cash to deserving causes,accompanied by an article from the local paper, has made a northern German city believe in fairytales (童话).

     The first envelope was sent to a victim support group. It contained €10,000 with a cutting from the Braunschiveiger Zeitung about how the group supported a woman who was robbed of her handbag;similar plain white anonymous (匿名)envelopes, each containing  €10,000, then arrived at a kindergarten and a church.

     The envelopes keep coming, and; so far at least  €190,000 has been distributed. Last month, one of them was sent to the newspaper 's own office. It came after a story it published about Tom, a 14-year-old boy who was severely disabled in a swimming accident. The receptionist at the

Braunschiveiger Zeitung opened an anonymous white envelope to find 20 notes of  € 500 inside with a copy of the article. The name of the family was underlined.

     "I was driving when I heard the news," Claudia Neumann, the boy's mother, told Der Spiegel magazine. "I had to park on the side of the road; I was speechless."

     The money will be used to make the entrance to their house wheelchair-accessible and for a course of treatment that their insurance company refused to pay for.

     "For someone to act so selflessly, for this to happen in such a society in which everyone thinks of himself, was astonishing," Mrs. Neumann said. Her family wonder whether the donator is a Robin Hood character, taking from banks to give to the needy.

     Henning Noske,the editor of the Braunschiveiger Zeitung, said: "Maybe it is an old person who is about to die. We just do not know." However, he has told his reporters not to look for the city's hero, for fear that discovery may stop the donations.

What would be the best title for the passage?

A. Money Is Raised by the Newspaper.

B. Newspaper Distributes Money to the Needy.

C. Unknown Hero Spreads Love in Envelopes

D. Robin Hood Returns to the City

 27

     Spring is coming, and it is time for those about to graduate to look for jobs. Competition is tough, so job seekers must carefully consider their personal choices. Whatever we are wearing,our family and friends may accept us, but the workplace may not.

    A high school newspaper editor said it is unfair for companies to discourage visible tattoos (纹身)nose rings, or certain dress styles. It is true you can't judge a book by its cover, yet people do "cover" themselves in order to convey (传递)certain messages. What we wear, including tattoos and nose rings, is an expression of who we are.     Just as people convey messages about themselves with their appearances? so do companies. Dress standards exist in the business world for a number of reasons, but the main concern is often about what customers accept.

     Others may say how to dress is a matter of personal freedom, but for businesses it is more about whether to make or lose money. Most employers do care about the personal appearances of their employees (雇员),because those people represent the companies to their customers.

     As a hiring manager I am paid to choose the people who would make the best impression on our customers. There are plenty of well-qualified candidates, so it is not wrong to reject someone who might disappoint my customers. Even though I am open-minded, I can't expect all our customers are.

    There is nobody to blame but yourself if your set of choices does not match that of your preferred employer. No company should have to change to satisfy a candidate simply cause he or she is unwilling to respect its standards, as long as its standards are legal.

  Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

A. Employees Matter              B. Personal Choices Matter

C. Appearances Matter             D. Hiring Managers Matter

综合训练

Everyone’s at it, even my neighbors. I thought I might be the only person left in the world who hadn’t done an eBay deal. So, I decided to try my hand at online auction(网上拍卖).

Buying for beginners: Sign up on www. ehay. co. uk. Most items (e. g. tables, computers, and books) ready for auction will come with a picture and a short description; others may be marked with “Buy It Now” and have a fixed price. You can buy these right away.

  If the item is being auctioned, you offer the highest price you are prepared to pay and eBay bids (出价) for you. The bid will be increased little by little until it goes beyond your highest bid, then you are emailed and asked if you would like to bid again. Auctions last up to 10days and when they finish you get an email telling you whether you have won the item.

  How to pay: Sellers decide how they would like to be paid and you need to check this before placing a bid as you might not want to post a cheque or postal orders. The easiest way is through PayPal, an online payment system that takes the money away from your credit card (信用).

  Selling made simple: If you plan to sell on eBay, it helps to include a picture of the item. I followed my friends' advice and put up the items I wanted to sell for a 10-day auction, starring on a Thursday. This way buyers had two weekends to bid.

  The big things in life: It' s easy to post a small item, but furniture is a big part of eBay and this has to be collected or sent by deliverymen. Cheek the ways of delivery before you bid.

  What is the passage mainly about?

  A. How to make payment online.

  B. Ways of making delivery online

  C. Advantages of an online-auction system.

  D. How to use an online-auction system.

People who multitask all the time may be the worst at doing two things at once, a new research suggests. The findings, based on performances and self-evaluation by about 275 college students, indicate that many

people multitask not out of a desire to increase productivity, but because they are easily distracted (分心) and can’t focus on one activity. And “those people turn out to be the worst at handling different things,” said David Sanbonmatsu, a psychologist at the University of Utah.

   Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues gave the students a set of tests and asked them to report how often they multitasked, how good they thought they were at it, and how sensation-seeking (寻求刺激) or imperative (冲动)they were. They then evaluated the participants’ multitasking ability with a tricky mental task that required the students to do simple mathematical calculations while remembering a set of letters.

   Not surprisingly, the scientists said, most people thought they were better than average at multitasking, and those who thought they were better at it were more likely to report using a cellphone while driving or viewing multiple kinds of media at once. But those who frequently deal with many things at the same time were found to perform the worst at the actual multitasking test. They also were more likely to admit to sensation-seeking and impulsive behavior, which connects with how easily people get bored and distracted.

“People multitask not because it’s going to lead to greater productivity, but because they’re distractible, and they get sucked into things that are not as important.” Sanbonmatsu said.

  Adam Gazzaley, a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not a member of the research group, said one limitation of the study was that it couldn’t find out whether people who start out less focused toward multitasking or whether people’s recognizing and understanding abilities change as a result of multitasking.

   The findings do suggest, however, why the sensation-seeker who multitask the most may enjoy risky distracted driving. “People who are multitasking are generally less sensitive to risky situations.” said Paul Atchley, another researcher not in the group. “This may partly explain why people go in for these situations even though they’re dangerous.”

67. The research led by Sanbonmatsu indicates that people who multitask________.   .

A. seek high productivity constantly    

B. prefer handling different things when getting bored

C. are more focused when doing many things at a time

D. have the poorest results in doing various things at the same time

68. When Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues conducted their research, they ___________.  .

A. assessed the multitasking ability of the students  

B. evaluated the academic achievements of the students

C. analyzed the effects of the participants’ tricky mental tasks

D. measured the changes of the students’ understanding ability

69. According to Sanbonmatsu, people multitask because of their  __________. _.

A. limited power in calculation       B. interests in doing things differently

C. inability to concentrate on one task  D. impulsive desire to try new things

70. From the last paragraph, we can learn that multitaskers usually__________.    .

A. drive very skillfully                             

B. go in for different tasks

C. fail to react quickly to potential dangers             

D. refuse to explain the reasons for their behavior

高考英语 阅读理解 主旨大意 参考答案

1.Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going.

What is the min idea of the text?

C.Human development results in fewer languages

2.     What might be the best title for the passage?

A.Going Green.

 答案解析:主旨大意题。根据本文叙述了一家人环保生活的经历和效果,文章出现了出现了多次going green,点名的主题,故选A。

3.The passage is meant to ______.

B.discuss the morals of allocating things

4.

Which of the following can be the best title for the text

A.Exploring the Future of jazz.

5. 

What is mainly discussed in Paragraph 2?

A.How to listen well.

 6. 

The text is mainly about__________ .

D.how human activity affects our water supply

7. 

 What does paragraph 5 mainly tell us about the Lampbrella?

    D. Its safety

8

What docs the text mainly talk about

B.The "night owl" phenomenon.

9

The first paragraph focuses on____ .

C.  the contribution of group exercise to psychological health

10.

What is stressed in the last paragraph?

B.The sacrifices mothers make are huge but worthwhile.

11.

What is the passage mainly about?

B. The importance of food in culture.

12

   What does the author stress in Paragraph 5?

B.Rising above self and acting to help others.

13.

What is the main idea of paragraph 1?

A.People remember well what they learned in childhood.

14

What is the main idea of Para. 3?

C. Useful services of wildernesses are not the reason for no exploitation.

15

Paragraph 1 of the passage is mainly about shrilk's _________.

      D. basic elements

16

What does the author tell us in paragraph 1?

D. how two “Irelands” came into being.

17

What does the text mainly talk about?

C.Minor and the first Oxford English Dictionary.

18

Which of the following is the best title of this passage?

C.The Fight against Cheating in Online Education

19.

Which of the following can Be the Best title for the text?

B.Flying Makes Me a Better Doctor

20

Which would be the best title for the passage?

A.Actions or Excuses?

21

Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

C.Turning Trash to Treasure.

22

What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Is Your House Making You Fat?

23

What may be the best title for the text?

B.What It Means to Be Silent

24

 What is the best title for the text?

D. A Website Links People through Books

25

What can be the best title for the text?

D. Honey-Lover's Helper

26

What would be the best title for the passage?

C. Unknown Hero Spreads Love in Envelopes

27

 Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

C. Appearances Matter          

综合训练

  What is the passage mainly about?

  D. How to use an online-auction system.

 【点津】D本题考察考生对文章主旨要义的理解能力。四个选项均涉及到有关短文内容,但是通过比较其核心概念,会发现A选项为支付首段, B选项为交货方式, C选项为系统优势,D选项为使用方法。由此可见A、B、C三个选项都只涉及了短文部分内容,不具备概括全篇的作用。D选项包含所有内容,能够全面概括出短文的主旨要义。C选项由于说话方式本身具有概括意味,具有一定的干扰。

67. The research led by Sanbonmatsu indicates that people who multitask________.   .

D. have the poorest results in doing various things at the same time

68. When Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues conducted their research, they ___________.  .

A. assessed the multitasking ability of the students  

69. According to Sanbonmatsu, people multitask because of their  __________. _.

C. inability to concentrate on one task  70. From the last paragraph, we can learn that multitaskers usually__________.    .

C. fail to react quickly to potential dangers  

小题67:D小题68:A小题69:C小题70:C

试题分析:中国有句古语云:一心不可二用。而最近的一项研究就表明。那些经常一心多用的人往往就是同时做两件事做的最糟糕的人。正是因为不能专注于一件事,才会同时多做几件事,结果可想而知。

小题69:细节理解题。根据全文第一句话可知,一心多用,往往会把事情做得更糟糕。故选D。

小题70:细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句话可知,然后他们要这些学生一面做一些数学运算, 一面记忆一组字母, 用这个很刁难的方法来测试这些学生一心多用的能力。和A项意思一致 。

小题71:细节理解题。根据全文第二句的but because they are easily distracted (分心) and can’t focus on one activity.可知,许多人一心多用, 并不是因为他们想要增强工作生产量, 而是因为他们很容易分心或是不能专注于做一件事。故选C。

小题72:推理判断题。由最后一段的People who are multitasking are generally less sensitive to risky situations.一心多用的人一般对危险的情形不太敏感。可知,对危险的事情,一心多用者往往对潜在的危险不能迅速判断。故选C。

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